Type 1 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin, which is vital for converting glucose into energy. Usually type 1 Diabetes starts at younger age. People with type 1 diabetes need to do the job of the pancreas and replace the insulin via insulin injections. Insulin injection regimen, best fits for you, will be prescribed by your doctor and you will be advised on minor insulin dose adjustments according to your meal. If you are on a fixed dose of insulin, stick to a consistent carbohydrate intake(Carbohydrate rich foods – eg: Rice, bread and buns, potato & yams). Otherwise, discuss with your doctor regarding self-adjustment of insulin dose according to your variable food intake. If you miss your insulin, you are at risk of developing life threatening condition called Diabetic ketoacidosis. When you are ill, you need to continue insulin with some dose adjustment according to the medical advice. Seek early medical attention for even minor illness to prevent complications.........
Your goal is to maintain blood sugar within targets, balancing your insulin dose with your meal and exercise. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) using a glucometer at home is the best method to monitor your control. In addition, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c also can be used in regular intervals. If you are planning a prolonged exercise of more than 30 min, take a snack before exercise to prevent hypoglycaemia.
Type 2 Diabetes
In type 2 Diabetes, your pancreas still works, but less efficiently. Insulin, what is produced, also fails to act properly in the periphery. Excessive body weight, lack of exercise and familial tendency predispose to this type of Diabetes. Healthy lifestyle would prevent or delay the development of type 2 Diabetes..............
Your blood sugar will be controlled by healthy eating, regular physical activity and oral medications initially. This is a progressive disease. You might ultimately need insulin to control your Diabetes at later stages. You can be asymptomatic till late stages of the disease. Therefore by the time of diagnosis you might have already developed complications. Your doctor will screen you for complications at your first clinic visit.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed during pregnancy when your body cannot cope with the extra demand for insulin production resulting in high blood glucose levels. If gestational diabetes is not well looked after (blood glucose levels remain high) it may result in problems such as a large baby, miscarriage and stillbirth. A large baby can create the risk of injury at delivery, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and a need for the baby to be looked after in special care until the glucose level stabilizes after delivery. Other complications may include pregnancy loss and premature delivery. ..............
Gestational Diabetes is preferably managed with insulin, and some of you might be given Metformin. Regular blood glucose monitoring, healthy eating and adequate exercise is essential for control. Frequent small meals and snacks are the best for good glycaemic control, healthy weight gain and prevention of hypoglycaemia. Moderate intensity physical activity can help to manage blood glucose levels. After the baby is born, gestational diabetes usually disappears. A special blood glucose test (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test - OGTT) is performed six weeks after delivery to ensure that blood glucose levels have returned to normal. However, women who have had gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life and should be tested for diabetes at least every 2 – 3 years.
This refers to blood sugar levels higher than normal, but not high enough to diagnose Diabetes ..............
Life style modification is a must to prevent Diabetes in this category. but younger , obese patients , patients with history of gestational Diabetes may need drug therapy to prevent Diabetes.